Diabetes Mellitus, known widely as diabetes, is a chronic disease, identified by high blood sugar levels over a perpetual time period. Indications like uncontrolled urination, increased appetite, and excessive thirst, mark as symptoms of diabetes. Types include: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The consultation of a diabetes doctor is mandatory, in case symptoms begin to grow. The type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment includes the intake of insulin, while in type 2 the treatment focuses on proper use of the insulin produced by the pancreas. Gestational diabetes, involves both medications as well as insulin shots.
Common symptoms of diabetes include:
· Polyuria ( Uncontrolled urination)
· Polydipsia (Excessive Thirst)
· Polyphagia (Increased appetite)
· Extreme Fatigue
· Cuts and Bruises that are slow to heal
· Blurry Vision
· Unexplained weight loss
Consultation with a qualified diabetes doctor, will help you in diagnosing the disease. The doctor will ask you for a Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) test. This test provides the average of your blood sugar control over the past 2 to 3 months. HbA1C levels of 6.5% or higher indicate diabetes. To control the level of blood sugar in the hemoglobin, regular tests of HbA1C are required, every 3 months. This will help in identifying if the medications are working properly, and if the blood sugar has reached the target level of control.
Type 1 diabetes:
Also called ‘insulin-dependent’ diabetes mellitus, this results when the pancreas cease to produce sufficient amount of insulin. Formerly known as ‘juvenile-onset’ diabetes, as it often begins during childhood. Only 5% of people in the world with diabetes, have this form of the disease.
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown. But, in most people it happens when the immune Glucofort system in the process of fighting harmful viruses, mistakenly destroys cells in the pancreas, that produce insulin. Hence, the body needs insulin to function porperly, and it can be done through injecting insulin through the skin, into the fatty tissue of the abdomen.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment and control include hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose). In hyperglycaemia, the adjustments of diet and insulin dose balance is required for control. If hyperglycaemia, remains untreated it leads to a severe condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, where the body breaks down fats instead of glucose, resulting in acid in your blood. It could be fatal, if not treated.
Type 2 diabetes:
About 90 to 95 percent of diabetes patients all over the world, have type 2 diabetes, which makes it the most common of all. This disease is identified by insulin resistance in the body, i.e. if the cells become resistant to the insulin produced.
Genetics and lifestyle, are the most prominent causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is often a less threatening form of the disease. Although, if not controlled, type 2 diabetes can affect the kidneys, eyes, and nerves, causing major complexities in the body.
The treatment for type 2 diabetes calls for a change in lifestyle, from a diabetic friendly diet, to reaching an optimum body weight. A BMI within a healthy range should be maintained by being physically active. A dietician will help you better understand the requirements of your body, and accordingly advice a healthy diet.
Certain episodes of hypoglycaemia occur when you have type 2 diabetes, which needs you to intake a quick-acting carbohydrate, like a sugary drink, followed by a sustainable one, like a cereal bar.
Occurs in women during pregnancy, mostly after 6 months, where certain hormones made by the placenta, lead to a boost in the blood sugar levels. To some degree, pregnancy triggers insulin resistance in the body, which leads to the onset of the disease. As this disease developes during pregnancy, it could harm both the mother and the baby, which is the main reason to follow the doctor’s advice, and start the treatment right away.